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Science : 1262-1267


Introduction to special issue
Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Experimental Ulcerative Colitis Reveals Associated Gut Microbial and Host Metabolic Reprogramming
Dysbiosis of maternal and neonatal microbiota associated with gestational diabetes mellitus
Synchronized shift of oral, faecal and urinary microbiotas in bats and natural infection dynamics during seasonal reproduction
Intestinal dysbiosis and permeability: the yin and yang in alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease
Interactions of the Hindgut Mucosa-Associated Microbiome with Its Host Regulate Shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by Cattle
Discovery of {alpha}-L-arabinopyranosidases from human gut microbiome expands the diversity within glycoside hydrolase family 42
Colonic Butyrate-Producing Communities in Humans: an Overview Using Omics Data
Bacterial Chat: Intestinal Metabolites and Signals in Host-Microbiota-Pathogen Interactions
Metabolic phenotyping for understanding the gut microbiome and host metabolic interplay
Microbiota Diversification and Crash Induced by Dietary Oxalate in the Mammalian Herbivore Neotoma albigula
Genome-Scale Model and Omics Analysis of Metabolic Capacities of Akkermansia muciniphila Reveal a Preferential Mucin-Degrading Lifestyle
Epigenetic Metabolite Acetate Inhibits Class I/II Histone Deacetylases, Promotes Histone Acetylation, and Increases HIV-1 Integration in CD4+ T Cells
The microbial metabolite desaminotyrosine protects from influenza through type I interferon
Targeted Metabolomics Analysis Identifies Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Urinary Biomarkers of Colonization Resistance in Antibiotic-Treated Mice
Teleosts as Model Organisms To Understand Host-Microbe Interactions
Direct and trans-generational effects of male and female gut microbiota in Drosophila melanogaster
Chemical signaling between gut microbiota and host chromatin: What is your gut really saying?
Periodontitis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis drives periodontal microbiota dysbiosis and insulin resistance via an impaired adaptive immune response
Impact of maternal antibodies and infant gut microbiota on the immunogenicity of rotavirus vaccines in African, Indian and European infants: protocol for a prospective cohort study
A member of the gut mycobiota modulates host purine metabolism exacerbating colitis in mice
A prominent glycyl radical enzyme in human gut microbiomes metabolizes trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline
Orally Administered Berberine Modulates Hepatic Lipid Metabolism by Altering Microbial Bile Acid Metabolism and the Intestinal FXR Signaling Pathway
Gut Microbiome of the Canadian Arctic Inuit
Resetting microbiota by Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits T reg deficiency-induced autoimmunity via adenosine A2A receptors
Metabolomics in nutrition research-a powerful window into nutritional metabolism
NKT Cell-Deficient Mice Harbor an Altered Microbiota That Fuels Intestinal Inflammation during Chemically Induced Colitis
Chronic Rhinosinusitis and the Evolving Understanding of Microbial Ecology in Chronic Inflammatory Mucosal Disease
Gut dysbiosis impairs recovery after spinal cord injury
Trimethylamine and Trimethylamine N-Oxide, a Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 (FMO3)-Mediated Host-Microbiome Metabolic Axis Implicated in Health and Disease
An ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates the Uptake of {alpha}-(1,6)-Linked Dietary Oligosaccharides in Bifidobacterium and Correlates with Competitive Growth on These Substrates
Effects of Walnut Consumption on Colon Carcinogenesis and Microbial Community Structure
Metabolites: messengers between the microbiota and the immune system
Immune response and gut microbial community structure in bumblebees after microbiota transplants
Can Metabolic Profiles Be Used as a Phenotypic Readout of the Genome to Enhance Precision Medicine?
Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L.
Speciation by Symbiosis: the Microbiome and Behavior
Building a Beneficial Microbiome from Birth
The Colonic Microbiome and Epithelial Transcriptome Are Altered in Rats Fed a High-Protein Diet Compared with a Normal-Protein Diet
Composition of the gut microbiota modulates the severity of malaria
Bidirectional interactions between indomethacin and the murine intestinal microbiota
Bromochloromethane, a Methane Analogue, Affects the Microbiota and Metabolic Profiles of the Rat Gastrointestinal Tract
Sex differences in the gut microbiome-brain axis across the lifespan
Circulating Biomarkers of Gut Barrier Function: Correlates and Nonresponse to Calcium Supplementation among Colon Adenoma Patients
New therapeutic approaches for the treatment of obesity
CD11b regulates obesity-induced insulin resistance via limiting alternative activation and proliferation of adipose tissue macrophages
Long-term risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease after removal of the colonic microbiota by colectomy: a cohort study based on the Danish National Patient Register from 1996 to 2014
Repurposing metformin: an old drug with new tricks in its binding pockets
Selective FFA2 Agonism Appears to Act via Intestinal PYY to Reduce Transit and Food Intake but Does Not Improve Glucose Tolerance in Mouse Models
Disease tolerance mediated by microbiome E. coli involves inflammasome and IGF-1 signaling
Investigation of Host-Gut Microbiota Modulation of Therapeutic Outcome
The Presystemic Interplay between Gut Microbiota and Orally Administered Calycosin-7-O-{beta}-D-Glucoside
Plasma metabolomic profiles enhance precision medicine for volunteers of normal health
The role of the gut microbiota in metabolic health
Dietary intake of soluble fiber and risk of islet autoimmunity by 5 y of age: results from the TEDDY study
Small molecules from the human microbiota
Which games are growing bacterial populations playing?
Fecal menaquinone profiles of overweight adults are associated with gut microbiota composition during a gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention
Short-Chain Fatty Acids Protect Against High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity via a PPAR{gamma}-Dependent Switch From Lipogenesis to Fat Oxidation
Anoxic Conditions Promote Species-Specific Mutualism between Gut Microbes In Silico
Xenorhabdus bovienii Strain Diversity Impacts Coevolution and Symbiotic Maintenance with Steinernema spp. Nematode Hosts
Intestinal transport and metabolism of bile acids
The sociality-health-fitness nexus: synthesis, conclusions and future directions
Species-Specific Dynamic Responses of Gut Bacteria to a Mammalian Glycan
Urinary metabolic signatures of human adiposity
Characterization and Detection of a Widely Distributed Gene Cluster That Predicts Anaerobic Choline Utilization by Human Gut Bacteria
SIGNR3-dependent immune regulation by Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer protein A in colitis
Defective NOD2 peptidoglycan sensing promotes diet-induced inflammation, dysbiosis, and insulin resistance
Commensal microbiota is hepatoprotective and prevents liver fibrosis in mice
Penetrability of the inner mucus layer: who is out there?
Does Our Gut Microbiome Predict Cardiovascular Risk?: A Review of the Evidence From Metabolomics
The chemistry of negotiation: Rhythmic, glycan-driven acidification in a symbiotic conversation
Spatial and Temporal Features of the Growth of a Bacterial Species Colonizing the Zebrafish Gut
The gut microbiota influences blood-brain barrier permeability in mice
Prognostic Value of Elevated Levels of Intestinal Microbe-Generated Metabolite Trimethylamine-N-Oxide in Patients With Heart Failure: Refining the Gut Hypothesis
Fertility and early pregnancy outcomes after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: systematic review and meta-analysis
Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity
Modulation of the Gut Microbiota by Nutrients with Prebiotic and Probiotic Properties
Glycan Degradation (GlyDeR) Analysis Predicts Mammalian Gut Microbiota Abundance and Host Diet-Specific Adaptations
Host Responses to the Pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Beneficial Microbes Exhibit Host Sex Specificity
The food metabolome: a window over dietary exposure
Gut microbiota dictates the metabolic response of Drosophila to diet
Regulation of host weight gain and lipid metabolism by bacterial bile acid modification in the gut
The future of yogurt: scientific and regulatory needs
Draft Genome Sequences of the Altered Schaedler Flora, a Defined Bacterial Community from Gnotobiotic Mice
Carnitine metabolism to trimethylamine by an unusual Rieske-type oxygenase from human microbiota
Wild-Type and IL10-Null Mice Have Differential Colonic Epithelial Gene Expression Responses to Dietary Supplementation with Synbiotic Bifidobacterium animalis Subspecies lactis and Inulin
Insulin signaling, resistance, and metabolic syndrome: insights from mouse models into disease mechanisms
Review of Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics in Cancer Research
Symbiotic lactobacilli stimulate gut epithelial proliferation via Nox-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species
Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 Induce Different Age-Related Metabolic Profiles Revealed by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy in Urine and Feces of Mice
Worms need microbes too: microbiota, health and aging in Caenorhabditis elegans
The role of short-chain fatty acids in the interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and host energy metabolism
The neonatal gastrointestinal microbiota: the foundation of future health?


6 July 2018

Vol 361, Issue 6397


Hidden conflicts?

Technology Development

Autonomous vehicles: No driver…no regulation?

Science The Arts

STEMM education should get “HACD”


News at a glance


America's lost dogs

Working Life

The road less traveled

Table of Contents

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In some organizations, corporations, and agencies, there are multiple levels of security clearance. The terms used for the classifications, and the requirements imposed on applicants, vary among countries and entities. In the United States, the two most common government security clearances are known as Secret and Top Secret. In order to obtain a security clearance, a person must meet certain requirements concerning character, criminal record, and credit history. The higher the level of the security clearance, the more strict are the requirements.

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» Eye Health Information » Diabetic Eye Disease » Facts About Diabetic Eye Disease

Facts About Diabetic Eye Disease

Diabetic eye disease can affect many parts of the eye, including the retina, macula, lens and the optic nerve.

Diabetic eye disease is a group of eye conditions that can affect people with diabetes.

Diabetic retinopathy Diabetic macular edema (DME).

Diabetic eye disease also includes cataract and glaucoma:

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All forms of diabetic eye disease have the potential to cause severe vision loss and blindness.

Chronically high blood sugar from diabetes is associated with damage to the tiny blood vessels in the retina, leading to diabetic retinopathy. The retina detects light and converts it to signals sent through the optic nerve to the brain. Diabetic retinopathy can cause blood vessels in the retina to leak fluid or hemorrhage (bleed), distorting vision. In its most advanced stage, new abnormal blood vessels proliferate (increase in number) on the surface of the retina, which can lead to scarring and cell loss in the retina.

Diabetic retinopathy may progress through four stages:

Mild nonproliferative retinopathy. Moderate nonproliferative retinopathy. Severe nonproliferative retinopathy. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

DME is the build-up of fluid (edema) in a region of the retina called the macula. The macula is important for the sharp, straight-ahead vision that is used for reading, recognizing faces, and driving. DME is the most common cause of vision loss among people with diabetic retinopathy. About half of all people with diabetic retinopathy will develop DME. Although it is more likely to occur as diabetic retinopathy worsens, DME can happen at any stage of the disease.

People with all types of diabetes (type 1, type 2, and gestational) are at risk for diabetic retinopathy. Risk increases the longer a person has diabetes. Between 40 and 45 percent of Americans diagnosed with diabetes have some stage of diabetic retinopathy, although only about half are aware of it. Women who develop or have diabetes during pregnancy may have rapid onset or worsening of diabetic retinopathy.

The same scene as viewed by a person normal vision (Top) and with (Center) advanced diabetic retinopathy. The floating spots are hemorrhages that require prompt treatment. DME (Bottom) causes blurred vision.

The early stages of diabetic retinopathy usually have no symptoms. The disease often progresses unnoticed until it affects vision. Bleeding from abnormal retinal blood vessels can cause the appearance of “floating” spots. These spots sometimes clear on their own. But without prompt treatment, bleeding often recurs, increasing the risk of permanent vision loss. If DME occurs, it can cause blurred vision.


By Mike Bohn July 6, 2018 2:40 pm


By: Mike Bohn | July 6, 2018 2:40 pm

view 40 images

Two days after his official removal from UFC 226, featherweight champion Max Holloway has finally spoken out.

Holloway (19-3 MMA, 15-3 UFC) was forced to withdraw from his scheduled title defense against challenger Brian Ortega (14-0 MMA, 6-0 UFC) late Wednesday when he was said to be showing concussion-like symptoms . Holloway was admitted to a Las Vegas hospital twice this week and participated in several interviews that prompted concern about his physical state.

Attempts to figure out exactly what’s wrong with the Hawaiian titleholder are ongoing. UFC President Dana White said on Thursday the company will do everything it can to help “Blessed,” but in the meantime, Holloway has released his first comments since the disappointing scratch (via Twitter ):

It was what it was. Respect to Ortega and his team. Thank you and the staff for making my health priority. Also thank you to and for being about that champ life and stepping up. I see you. To all the fans I know this rollercoaster can

— Max Holloway (@BlessedMMA)

be frustrating because my team is also on it with you. All I can say is I’m truly sorry and I hope you guys stay buckled in because it is far from being over. Don’t let the bad surprises distract you from the good surprises in this great sport. The best is still blessed.

This year has been the most challenging one of Holloway’s career. After fighting 18 times under the UFC banner since his 2012 debut, he’s had three fights scratched in the past five months.

Holloway suffered an ankle injury that forced him out of UFC 222 in March, he was ruled medically unfit to continue his weight cut ahead of UFC 223 in April, and now he had a fight-week scratch ahead of UFC 226.

In the wake of his UFC 226 withdrawal, the likes of UFC lightweight champ Khabib Nurmagomedov (26-0 MMA, 10-0 UFC) and former champ Womens Free Time Mocha amazing price online free shipping low price asGF8Kd
(21-3 MMA, 9-1 UFC) have publicly declared their support for Holloway. The 145-pound king recognized those comments, as well (via Twitter ):

Thank you my brother. I know you know what it is because your whole team is champions. Peace be with you

Thank you champ champ. One of the best minds in this game said we win or learn. This is learning for me. Hope to see you back brother

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